Arthur Bispo do Rosário

Arthur Bispo do Rosário (Sergipe, 1909 ou 1911 – Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1989), foi um artista plástico brasileiro.
Considerado louco por alguns e gênio por outros, a sua figura insere-se no debate sobre o pensamento eugênico, o preconceito e os limites entre a insanidade e a arte, no Brasil. A sua história liga-se também à da Colônia Juliano Moreira, instituição criada no Rio de Janeiro, na primeira metade do século XX, destinada a abrigar aqueles classificados como anormais ou indesejáveis (doentes psiquiátricos, alcoólatras e desviantes das mais diversas espécies).

Natural de Japaratuba-Sergipe, Arthur Bispo é descendente de escravos africanos, foi marinheiro na juventude, vindo a tornar-se empregado de uma tradicional família carioca.

Na noite 22 de Dezembro de 1938, despertou com alucinações que o conduziram ao patrão, o advogado Humberto Magalhães Leoni, a quem disse que iria se apresentar à Igreja da Candelária. Depois de peregrinar pela rua Primeiro de Março e por várias igrejas do então Distrito Federal, terminou subindo ao Mosteiro de São Bento, onde anunciou a um grupo de monges que era um enviado de Deus, encarregado de julgar aos vivos e aos mortos. Dois dias depois foi detido e fichado pela polícia como negro, sem documentos e indigente, e conduzido ao Hospício Pedro II (o hospício da Praia Vermelha), primeira instituição oficial desse tipo no país, inaugurada em 1852, onde anos antes havia sido internado o escritor Lima Barreto (1881-1922).

Um mês após a sua internação, foi transferido para a Colônia Juliano Moreira, localizada no subúrbio de Jacarepaguá, sob o diagnóstico de “esquizofrênico-paranóico”. Aqui recebeu o número de paciente 01662, e permaneceu por mais de 50 anos.
Em determinado momento, Bispo do Rosário passou a produzir objetos com diversos tipos de materiais oriundos do lixo e da sucata que, após a sua descoberta, seriam classificados como arte vanguardista e comparados à obra de Marcel Duchamp. Entre os temas, destacam-se navios (tema recorrente devido à sua relação com a Marinha na juventude), estandartes, faixas de mísses e objetos domésticos. A sua obra mais conhecida é o Manto da Apresentação, que Bispo deveria vestir no dia do Juízo Final. Com eles, Bispo pretendia marcar a passagem de Deus na Terra.
Os objetos recolhidos dos restos da sociedade de consumo foram reutilizados como forma de registrar o cotidiano dos indivíduos, preparados com preocupações estéticas, onde se percebem características dos conceitos das vanguardas artísticas e das produções elaboradas a partir de 1960.

Utilizava a palavra como elemento pulsante. Ao recorrer a essa linguagem manipula signos e brinca com a construção de discursos, fragmenta a comunicação em códigos privados.
Inserido em um contexto excludente, Bispo driblava as instituições todo tempo. A instituição manicomial se recusando a receber tratamentos médicos e dela retirando subsídios para elaborar sua obra, e Museus, quando sendo marginalizado e excluído é consagrado como referência da Arte Contemporânea brasileira.

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